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3pod.nu | Übersetzungen für 'wider' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für wide im Online-Wörterbuch 3pod.nu ( Deutschwörterbuch). wide - Wörterbuch Englisch-Deutsch. Stichwörter und Wendungen sowie Übersetzungen.

The common word channel was first recorded in Middle English in the 13th century and was borrowed from Old French chanel , variant form of chenel "canal".

The French name la Manche has been in use since at least the 17th century. Folk etymology has derived it from a Celtic word meaning channel that is also the source of the name for the Minch in Scotland, [8] but this name was never mentioned before the 17th century, and French and British sources of that time are perfectly clear about its etymology.

The Southwestern limit of the North Sea. The Strait of Dover French: Pas de Calais , at the Channel's eastern end, is its narrowest point, while its widest point lies between Lyme Bay and the Gulf of Saint Malo , near its midpoint.

There are several major islands in the Channel, the most notable being the Isle of Wight off the English coast, and the Channel Islands , British Crown dependencies off the coast of France.

The coastline, particularly on the French shore, is deeply indented; several small islands close to the coastline, including Chausey and Mont Saint-Michel , are within French jurisdiction.

The Cotentin Peninsula in France juts out into the Channel, whilst on the English side there is a small parallel strait known as the Solent between the Isle of Wight and the mainland.

The Celtic Sea is to the west of the Channel. The Channel acts as a funnel that amplifies the tidal range from less than a metre as observed at sea [ clarification needed ] to more than 6 metres as observed in the Channel Islands , the west coast of the Cotentin Peninsula and the north coast of Brittany.

The time difference of about six hours between high water at the eastern and western limits of the Channel is indicative of the tidal range being amplified further by resonance.

The Channel is of geologically recent origin, having been dry land for most of the Pleistocene period. During this period the North Sea and almost all of the British Isles were covered by ice.

The lake was fed by meltwater from the Baltic and from the Caledonian and Scandinavian ice sheets that joined to the north, blocking its exit.

The first flood would have lasted for several months, releasing as much as one million cubic metres of water per second. The flow eroded the retaining ridge, causing the rock dam to fail and releasing lake water into the Atlantic.

After multiple episodes of changing sea level, during which the Fosses Dangeard were largely infilled by various layers of sediment, another catastrophic flood carved a large bedrock-floored valley, the Lobourg Channel , some m wide and 25 m deep, from the southern North Sea basin through the centre of the Straits of Dover and into the English Channel.

It left streamlined islands, longitudinal erosional grooves, and other features characteristic of catastrophic megaflood events, still present on the sea floor and now revealed by high-resolution sonar.

The flooding destroyed the ridge that connected Britain to continental Europe, although a land connection across the southern North Sea would have existed intermittently at later times when periods of glaciation resulted in lowering of sea levels.

As a busy shipping lane, the Channel experiences environmental problems following accidents involving ships with toxic cargo and oil spills.

The channel, which delayed human reoccupation of Great Britain for more than , years, [24] has in historic times been both an easy entry for seafaring people and a key natural defence, halting invading armies while in conjunction with control of the North Sea allowing Britain to blockade the continent.

Successful invasions include the Roman conquest of Britain and the Norman Conquest in , while the concentration of excellent harbours in the Western Channel on Britain's south coast made possible the largest invasion of all time, the Normandy Landings in In more peaceful times the Channel served as a link joining shared cultures and political structures, particularly the huge Angevin Empire from to For nearly a thousand years, the Channel also provided a link between the Modern Celtic regions and languages of Cornwall and Brittany.

In February , ice formed on the sea in a belt 3 miles 4. Remnants of a mesolithic boatyard have been found on the Isle of Wight. Wheat was traded across the Channel about 8, years ago.

Sophisticated social networks linked the Neolithic front in southern Europe to the Mesolithic peoples of northern Europe.

A brisk and regular trade began between ports in Roman Gaul and those in Britain. This traffic continued until the end of Roman rule in Britain in AD, after which the early Anglo-Saxons left less clear historical records.

In the power vacuum left by the retreating Romans, the Germanic Angles , Saxons , and Jutes began the next great migration across the North Sea.

Having already been used as mercenaries in Britain by the Romans, many people from these tribes crossed during the Migration Period , conquering and perhaps displacing the native Celtic populations.

The attack on Lindisfarne in is generally considered the beginning of the Viking Age. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle they began to settle in Britain in They continued to settle in the British Isles and the continent until around In exchange for his homage and fealty , Rollo legally gained the territory he and his Viking allies had previously conquered.

The name "Normandy" reflects Rollo's Viking i. The descendants of Rollo and his followers adopted the local Gallo-Romance language and intermarried with the area's inhabitants and became the Normans — a Norman French -speaking mixture of Scandinavians , Hiberno-Norse , Orcadians , Anglo-Danish , and indigenous Franks and Gauls.

Rollo's descendant William, Duke of Normandy became king of England in in the Norman Conquest beginning with the Battle of Hastings , while retaining the fiefdom of Normandy for himself and his descendants.

His successors, however, often fought to regain control of mainland Normandy. With the rise of William the Conqueror the North Sea and Channel began to lose some of their importance.

The new order oriented most of England and Scandinavia's trade south, toward the Mediterranean and the Orient. Although the British surrendered claims to mainland Normandy and other French possessions in , the monarch of the United Kingdom retains the title Duke of Normandy in respect to the Channel Islands.

The British monarch is understood to not be the Duke of Normandy in regards of the French region of Normandy described herein, by virtue of the Treaty of Paris of , the surrender of French possessions in , and the belief that the rights of succession to that title are subject to Salic Law which excludes inheritance through female heirs.

French Normandy was occupied by English forces during the Hundred Years' War in — and again in — From the reign of Elizabeth I , English foreign policy concentrated on preventing invasion across the Channel by ensuring no major European power controlled the potential Dutch and Flemish invasion ports.

Her climb to the pre-eminent sea power of the world began in as the attempted invasion of the Spanish Armada was defeated by the combination of outstanding naval tactics by the English and the Dutch under command of Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham with Sir Francis Drake second in command, and the following stormy weather.

Over the centuries the Royal Navy slowly grew to be the most powerful in the world. The building of the British Empire was possible only because the Royal Navy eventually managed to exercise unquestioned control over the seas around Europe, especially the Channel and the North Sea.

To achieve this France needed to gain control of the Channel for several weeks, but was thwarted following the British naval victory at the Battle of Quiberon Bay in Another significant challenge to British domination of the seas came during the Napoleonic Wars.

The Battle of Trafalgar took place off the coast of Spain against a combined French and Spanish fleet and was won by Admiral Horatio Nelson , ending Napoleon 's plans for a cross-Channel invasion and securing British dominance of the seas for over a century.

Singapore, the Cape, Alexandria , Gibraltar, Dover. Because the Kaiserliche Marine surface fleet could not match the British Grand Fleet, the Germans developed submarine warfare , which was to become a far greater threat to Britain.

The Dover Patrol was set up just before the war started to escort cross-Channel troopships and to prevent submarines from sailing in the Channel, obliging them to travel to the Atlantic via the much longer route around Scotland.

On land, the German army attempted to capture Channel ports in the Race to the Sea but although the trenches are often said to have stretched "from the frontier of Switzerland to the English Channel", they reached the coast at the North Sea.

Much of the British war effort in Flanders was a bloody but successful strategy to prevent the Germans reaching the Channel coast.

At the outset of the war, an attempt was made to block the path of U-boats through the Dover Strait with naval minefields.

After initial success, the Germans learned how to pass through the barrage, aided by the unreliability of British mines.

The Battle of Passchendaele in was fought to reduce the threat by capturing the submarine bases on the Belgian coast, though it was the introduction of convoys and not capture of the bases that averted defeat.

During , the Dover Barrage was re-sited with improved mines and more effective nets, aided by regular patrols by small warships equipped with powerful searchlights.

A German attack on these vessels resulted in the Battle of Dover Strait in The naval blockade in the Channel and North Sea was one of the decisive factors in the German defeat in During the Second World War , naval activity in the European theatre was primarily limited to the Atlantic.

During the Battle of France in May , the German forces succeeded in capturing both Boulogne and Calais , thereby threatening the line of retreat for the British Expeditionary Force.

By a combination of hard fighting and German indecision, the port of Dunkirk was kept open allowing , Allied troops to be evacuated in Operation Dynamo.

More than 11, were evacuated from Le Havre during Operation Cycle [41] and a further , were evacuated from ports further down the coast in Operation Ariel in June Despite these early successes against shipping, the Germans did not win the air supremacy necessary for Operation Sealion , the projected cross-Channel invasion.

The Channel subsequently became the stage for an intensive coastal war, featuring submarines, minesweepers , and Fast Attack Craft.

Dieppe was the site of an ill-fated Dieppe Raid by Canadian and British armed forces. Caen , Cherbourg , Carentan , Falaise and other Norman towns endured many casualties in the fight for the province, which continued until the closing of the so-called Falaise gap between Chambois and Montormel , then liberation of Le Havre.

The Channel Islands were the only part of the British Commonwealth occupied by Germany excepting the part of Egypt occupied by the Afrika Korps at the time of the Second Battle of El Alamein , which was a protectorate and not part of the Commonwealth.

The German occupation of — was harsh, with some island residents being taken for slave labour on the Continent; native Jews sent to concentration camps ; partisan resistance and retribution; accusations of collaboration ; and slave labour primarily Russians and eastern Europeans being brought to the islands to build fortifications.

Intense negotiations resulted in some Red Cross humanitarian aid, but there was considerable hunger and privation during the occupation, particularly in the final months, when the population was close to starvation.

The German troops on the islands surrendered on 9 May , a day after the final surrender in mainland Europe. The English Channel coast is far more densely populated on the English shore.

The most significant towns and cities along both the English and French sides of the Channel each with more than 20, inhabitants, ranked in descending order; populations are the urban area populations from the French census, UK census, and Jersey census are as follows:.

The two dominant cultures are English on the north shore of the Channel, French on the south. However, there are also a number of minority languages that are or were found on the shores and islands of the English Channel, which are listed here, with the Channel's name following them.

Dutch previously had a larger range, and extended into parts of modern-day France. For more information, please see French Flemish.

The Channel has traffic on both the UK-Europe and North Sea-Atlantic routes, and is the world's busiest seaway, with over ships per day. The scheme mandates that vessels travelling north must use the French side, travelling south the English side.

There is a separation zone between the two lanes. The cargo ship Nicola ran into the wreckage the next day. There was no loss of life.

The shore-based long range traffic control system was updated in and there is a series of Traffic Separation Systems in operation.

Marine GPS systems allow ships to be preprogrammed to follow navigational channels accurately and automatically, further avoiding risk of running aground, but following the fatal collision between Dutch Aquamarine and Ash in October , Britain's Marine Accident Investigation Branch MAIB issued a safety bulletin saying it believed that in these most unusual circumstances GPS use had actually contributed to the collision.

A combination of radar difficulties in monitoring areas near cliffs, a failure of a CCTV system, incorrect operation of the anchor, the inability of the crew to follow standard procedures of using a GPS to provide early warning of the ship dragging the anchor and reluctance to admit the mistake and start the engine led to the MV Willy running aground in Cawsand bay, Cornwall in January The MAIB report makes it clear that the harbour controllers were informed of impending disaster by shore observers before the crew were themselves aware.

The number of ferry routes crossing the Strait of Dover has reduced since the Channel Tunnel opened.

Current cross-channel ferry routes are:. Many travellers cross beneath the Channel using the Channel Tunnel, first proposed in the early 19th century and finally opened in , connecting the UK and France by rail.

It is now routine to travel between Paris or Brussels and London on the Eurostar train. Freight trains also use the tunnel. Cars, coaches and lorries are carried on Eurotunnel Shuttle trains between Folkestone and Calais.

The coastal resorts of the Channel, such as Brighton and Deauville , inaugurated an era of aristocratic tourism in the early 19th century, which developed into the seaside tourism that has shaped resorts around the world.

As one of the narrowest and most well-known international waterways lacking dangerous currents, the Channel has been the first objective of numerous innovative sea, air, and human powered crossing technologies.

At the end of the last Ice Age , lower sea levels even permitted walking across. The paddle steamer Defiance , Captain William Wager, was the first steamer to cross the Channel to Holland, arriving there on 9 May On 10 June , English-built paddle steamer Rob Roy was the first passenger ferry to cross channel.

The steamer was purchased subsequently by the French postal administration and renamed Henri IV and put into regular passenger service a year later.

It was able to make the journey across the Straits of Dover in around three hours. The first ferry crossed under the command of Captain Hayward.

The journey was undertaken to demonstrate how the Bull Boats of the Mandan Indians of North Dakota could have been copied from coracles introduced by Prince Madog in the 12th century.

In , at a time when fewer than ten swimmers including the first woman, Gertrude Ederle in had managed to emulate the feat and many dubious claims were being made, the Channel Swimming Association CSA was founded to authenticate and ratify swimmers' claims to have swum the Channel and to verify crossing times.

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In need of language advice? Get help from other users in our forums. Beliebte Suchbegriffe to provide consider issue approach Termin durch Vorschlag.

Im Web und als APP. Die Vokabel wurde gespeichert, jetzt sortieren? Der Eintrag wurde im Forum gespeichert. LEO uses cookies in order to facilitate the fastest possible website experience with the most functions.

In some cases cookies from third parties are also used. Transliteration aktiv Tastaturlayout Phonetisch. He went out into the big , wide world.

The Climate of Europe, past, present, and future. First Crossing by Sea Scooters. His successors, however, often fought to regain control of mainland Normandy. On 16 Septembertwo Amphicars crossed from Dover to Calais. Galactic Cash Slot Machine Online ᐈ Habanero™ Casino Slots British monarch is understood to not be the Duke of Normandy in regards of the French region of Normandy described herein, by virtue of the Treaty of Paris ofthe surrender wide englisch French possessions inand the belief that the rights of succession to that title are subject to Salic Law which excludes inheritance through female heirs. Beste Spielothek in Unterbrunnwald finden 2 July Ich denke, ich habe die Wendung mit offschon gesehen, sie erscheint mir auch aus der Bedeutun. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The first flood would sis handballl blackjack lernen for several months, releasing as much as one million cubic metres of water per second. Kennst du Übersetzungen, die noch nicht in diesem Wörterbuch enthalten sind? There have been 16 two-way crossings 9 by men and 7 best slots online casino women.

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Beliebte Suchbegriffe to provide consider issue approach Termin durch Vorschlag. Im Web und als APP. Die Vokabel wurde gespeichert, jetzt sortieren?

Der Eintrag wurde im Forum gespeichert. LEO uses cookies in order to facilitate the fastest possible website experience with the most functions.

In some cases cookies from third parties are also used. Transliteration aktiv Tastaturlayout Phonetisch. He went out into the big , wide world.

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It was called Oceanus Britannicus by the 2nd-century geographer Ptolemy. The same name is used on an Italian map of about , which gives the alternative name of canalites Anglie —possibly the first recorded use of the "Channel" designation.

The common word channel was first recorded in Middle English in the 13th century and was borrowed from Old French chanel , variant form of chenel "canal".

The French name la Manche has been in use since at least the 17th century. Folk etymology has derived it from a Celtic word meaning channel that is also the source of the name for the Minch in Scotland, [8] but this name was never mentioned before the 17th century, and French and British sources of that time are perfectly clear about its etymology.

The Southwestern limit of the North Sea. The Strait of Dover French: Pas de Calais , at the Channel's eastern end, is its narrowest point, while its widest point lies between Lyme Bay and the Gulf of Saint Malo , near its midpoint.

There are several major islands in the Channel, the most notable being the Isle of Wight off the English coast, and the Channel Islands , British Crown dependencies off the coast of France.

The coastline, particularly on the French shore, is deeply indented; several small islands close to the coastline, including Chausey and Mont Saint-Michel , are within French jurisdiction.

The Cotentin Peninsula in France juts out into the Channel, whilst on the English side there is a small parallel strait known as the Solent between the Isle of Wight and the mainland.

The Celtic Sea is to the west of the Channel. The Channel acts as a funnel that amplifies the tidal range from less than a metre as observed at sea [ clarification needed ] to more than 6 metres as observed in the Channel Islands , the west coast of the Cotentin Peninsula and the north coast of Brittany.

The time difference of about six hours between high water at the eastern and western limits of the Channel is indicative of the tidal range being amplified further by resonance.

The Channel is of geologically recent origin, having been dry land for most of the Pleistocene period. During this period the North Sea and almost all of the British Isles were covered by ice.

The lake was fed by meltwater from the Baltic and from the Caledonian and Scandinavian ice sheets that joined to the north, blocking its exit.

The first flood would have lasted for several months, releasing as much as one million cubic metres of water per second.

The flow eroded the retaining ridge, causing the rock dam to fail and releasing lake water into the Atlantic.

After multiple episodes of changing sea level, during which the Fosses Dangeard were largely infilled by various layers of sediment, another catastrophic flood carved a large bedrock-floored valley, the Lobourg Channel , some m wide and 25 m deep, from the southern North Sea basin through the centre of the Straits of Dover and into the English Channel.

It left streamlined islands, longitudinal erosional grooves, and other features characteristic of catastrophic megaflood events, still present on the sea floor and now revealed by high-resolution sonar.

The flooding destroyed the ridge that connected Britain to continental Europe, although a land connection across the southern North Sea would have existed intermittently at later times when periods of glaciation resulted in lowering of sea levels.

As a busy shipping lane, the Channel experiences environmental problems following accidents involving ships with toxic cargo and oil spills.

The channel, which delayed human reoccupation of Great Britain for more than , years, [24] has in historic times been both an easy entry for seafaring people and a key natural defence, halting invading armies while in conjunction with control of the North Sea allowing Britain to blockade the continent.

Successful invasions include the Roman conquest of Britain and the Norman Conquest in , while the concentration of excellent harbours in the Western Channel on Britain's south coast made possible the largest invasion of all time, the Normandy Landings in In more peaceful times the Channel served as a link joining shared cultures and political structures, particularly the huge Angevin Empire from to For nearly a thousand years, the Channel also provided a link between the Modern Celtic regions and languages of Cornwall and Brittany.

In February , ice formed on the sea in a belt 3 miles 4. Remnants of a mesolithic boatyard have been found on the Isle of Wight. Wheat was traded across the Channel about 8, years ago.

Sophisticated social networks linked the Neolithic front in southern Europe to the Mesolithic peoples of northern Europe.

A brisk and regular trade began between ports in Roman Gaul and those in Britain. This traffic continued until the end of Roman rule in Britain in AD, after which the early Anglo-Saxons left less clear historical records.

In the power vacuum left by the retreating Romans, the Germanic Angles , Saxons , and Jutes began the next great migration across the North Sea.

Having already been used as mercenaries in Britain by the Romans, many people from these tribes crossed during the Migration Period , conquering and perhaps displacing the native Celtic populations.

The attack on Lindisfarne in is generally considered the beginning of the Viking Age. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle they began to settle in Britain in They continued to settle in the British Isles and the continent until around In exchange for his homage and fealty , Rollo legally gained the territory he and his Viking allies had previously conquered.

The name "Normandy" reflects Rollo's Viking i. The descendants of Rollo and his followers adopted the local Gallo-Romance language and intermarried with the area's inhabitants and became the Normans — a Norman French -speaking mixture of Scandinavians , Hiberno-Norse , Orcadians , Anglo-Danish , and indigenous Franks and Gauls.

Rollo's descendant William, Duke of Normandy became king of England in in the Norman Conquest beginning with the Battle of Hastings , while retaining the fiefdom of Normandy for himself and his descendants.

His successors, however, often fought to regain control of mainland Normandy. With the rise of William the Conqueror the North Sea and Channel began to lose some of their importance.

The new order oriented most of England and Scandinavia's trade south, toward the Mediterranean and the Orient. Although the British surrendered claims to mainland Normandy and other French possessions in , the monarch of the United Kingdom retains the title Duke of Normandy in respect to the Channel Islands.

The British monarch is understood to not be the Duke of Normandy in regards of the French region of Normandy described herein, by virtue of the Treaty of Paris of , the surrender of French possessions in , and the belief that the rights of succession to that title are subject to Salic Law which excludes inheritance through female heirs.

French Normandy was occupied by English forces during the Hundred Years' War in — and again in — From the reign of Elizabeth I , English foreign policy concentrated on preventing invasion across the Channel by ensuring no major European power controlled the potential Dutch and Flemish invasion ports.

Her climb to the pre-eminent sea power of the world began in as the attempted invasion of the Spanish Armada was defeated by the combination of outstanding naval tactics by the English and the Dutch under command of Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham with Sir Francis Drake second in command, and the following stormy weather.

Over the centuries the Royal Navy slowly grew to be the most powerful in the world. The building of the British Empire was possible only because the Royal Navy eventually managed to exercise unquestioned control over the seas around Europe, especially the Channel and the North Sea.

To achieve this France needed to gain control of the Channel for several weeks, but was thwarted following the British naval victory at the Battle of Quiberon Bay in Another significant challenge to British domination of the seas came during the Napoleonic Wars.

The Battle of Trafalgar took place off the coast of Spain against a combined French and Spanish fleet and was won by Admiral Horatio Nelson , ending Napoleon 's plans for a cross-Channel invasion and securing British dominance of the seas for over a century.

Singapore, the Cape, Alexandria , Gibraltar, Dover. Because the Kaiserliche Marine surface fleet could not match the British Grand Fleet, the Germans developed submarine warfare , which was to become a far greater threat to Britain.

The Dover Patrol was set up just before the war started to escort cross-Channel troopships and to prevent submarines from sailing in the Channel, obliging them to travel to the Atlantic via the much longer route around Scotland.

On land, the German army attempted to capture Channel ports in the Race to the Sea but although the trenches are often said to have stretched "from the frontier of Switzerland to the English Channel", they reached the coast at the North Sea.

Much of the British war effort in Flanders was a bloody but successful strategy to prevent the Germans reaching the Channel coast.

At the outset of the war, an attempt was made to block the path of U-boats through the Dover Strait with naval minefields. After initial success, the Germans learned how to pass through the barrage, aided by the unreliability of British mines.

The Battle of Passchendaele in was fought to reduce the threat by capturing the submarine bases on the Belgian coast, though it was the introduction of convoys and not capture of the bases that averted defeat.

During , the Dover Barrage was re-sited with improved mines and more effective nets, aided by regular patrols by small warships equipped with powerful searchlights.

A German attack on these vessels resulted in the Battle of Dover Strait in The naval blockade in the Channel and North Sea was one of the decisive factors in the German defeat in During the Second World War , naval activity in the European theatre was primarily limited to the Atlantic.

During the Battle of France in May , the German forces succeeded in capturing both Boulogne and Calais , thereby threatening the line of retreat for the British Expeditionary Force.

By a combination of hard fighting and German indecision, the port of Dunkirk was kept open allowing , Allied troops to be evacuated in Operation Dynamo.

More than 11, were evacuated from Le Havre during Operation Cycle [41] and a further , were evacuated from ports further down the coast in Operation Ariel in June Despite these early successes against shipping, the Germans did not win the air supremacy necessary for Operation Sealion , the projected cross-Channel invasion.

The Channel subsequently became the stage for an intensive coastal war, featuring submarines, minesweepers , and Fast Attack Craft. Dieppe was the site of an ill-fated Dieppe Raid by Canadian and British armed forces.

Caen , Cherbourg , Carentan , Falaise and other Norman towns endured many casualties in the fight for the province, which continued until the closing of the so-called Falaise gap between Chambois and Montormel , then liberation of Le Havre.

The Channel Islands were the only part of the British Commonwealth occupied by Germany excepting the part of Egypt occupied by the Afrika Korps at the time of the Second Battle of El Alamein , which was a protectorate and not part of the Commonwealth.

The German occupation of — was harsh, with some island residents being taken for slave labour on the Continent; native Jews sent to concentration camps ; partisan resistance and retribution; accusations of collaboration ; and slave labour primarily Russians and eastern Europeans being brought to the islands to build fortifications.

Intense negotiations resulted in some Red Cross humanitarian aid, but there was considerable hunger and privation during the occupation, particularly in the final months, when the population was close to starvation.

The German troops on the islands surrendered on 9 May , a day after the final surrender in mainland Europe. The English Channel coast is far more densely populated on the English shore.

The most significant towns and cities along both the English and French sides of the Channel each with more than 20, inhabitants, ranked in descending order; populations are the urban area populations from the French census, UK census, and Jersey census are as follows:.

The two dominant cultures are English on the north shore of the Channel, French on the south. However, there are also a number of minority languages that are or were found on the shores and islands of the English Channel, which are listed here, with the Channel's name following them.

Dutch previously had a larger range, and extended into parts of modern-day France. For more information, please see French Flemish.

The Channel has traffic on both the UK-Europe and North Sea-Atlantic routes, and is the world's busiest seaway, with over ships per day. The scheme mandates that vessels travelling north must use the French side, travelling south the English side.

There is a separation zone between the two lanes. The cargo ship Nicola ran into the wreckage the next day.

There was no loss of life. The shore-based long range traffic control system was updated in and there is a series of Traffic Separation Systems in operation.

Marine GPS systems allow ships to be preprogrammed to follow navigational channels accurately and automatically, further avoiding risk of running aground, but following the fatal collision between Dutch Aquamarine and Ash in October , Britain's Marine Accident Investigation Branch MAIB issued a safety bulletin saying it believed that in these most unusual circumstances GPS use had actually contributed to the collision.

A combination of radar difficulties in monitoring areas near cliffs, a failure of a CCTV system, incorrect operation of the anchor, the inability of the crew to follow standard procedures of using a GPS to provide early warning of the ship dragging the anchor and reluctance to admit the mistake and start the engine led to the MV Willy running aground in Cawsand bay, Cornwall in January The MAIB report makes it clear that the harbour controllers were informed of impending disaster by shore observers before the crew were themselves aware.

The number of ferry routes crossing the Strait of Dover has reduced since the Channel Tunnel opened. Current cross-channel ferry routes are:.

Many travellers cross beneath the Channel using the Channel Tunnel, first proposed in the early 19th century and finally opened in , connecting the UK and France by rail.

It is now routine to travel between Paris or Brussels and London on the Eurostar train. Freight trains also use the tunnel.

Cars, coaches and lorries are carried on Eurotunnel Shuttle trains between Folkestone and Calais. The coastal resorts of the Channel, such as Brighton and Deauville , inaugurated an era of aristocratic tourism in the early 19th century, which developed into the seaside tourism that has shaped resorts around the world.

As one of the narrowest and most well-known international waterways lacking dangerous currents, the Channel has been the first objective of numerous innovative sea, air, and human powered crossing technologies.

At the end of the last Ice Age , lower sea levels even permitted walking across. The paddle steamer Defiance , Captain William Wager, was the first steamer to cross the Channel to Holland, arriving there on 9 May On 10 June , English-built paddle steamer Rob Roy was the first passenger ferry to cross channel.

The steamer was purchased subsequently by the French postal administration and renamed Henri IV and put into regular passenger service a year later.

It was able to make the journey across the Straits of Dover in around three hours. The first ferry crossed under the command of Captain Hayward.

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